Friday, April 1, 2011
Protein Synthesis Animation
Protein synthesis is the process by which proteins are assembled from amino acids based on blueprint encoded in mRNA. Translaion takes place in the ribosomes, which are found in the cytosol of all living cells, the matrix of mitochondria, and the stroma of chloroplasts.
Genetic information, stored in the chromosomes and transmitted to daughter cells through DNA replication is expressed through transcription of RNA and, in the case of mRNA, subsequent translation into polypeptide chains. This flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein is termed the “central dogma” and is descriptive of all organisms.
Protein Biosynthesis Synthesis
Protein biosynthesis Synthesis is the process in which cells build proteins. The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more often it refers to a multi-step process, beginning with amino acid synthesis and transcription which are then used for translation. Protein biosynthesis, although very similar, differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
DNA Binding Proteins
Structural proteins that bind DNA are well-understood examples of non-specific DNA-protein interactions. Within chromosomes, DNA is held in complexes with structural proteins. These proteins organize the DNA into a compact structure called chromatin. In eukaryotes this structure involves DNA binding to a complex of small basic proteins called his tones, while in prokaryotes multiple types of proteins are involved.